Preheat the oven to 425F; line a baking tray with parchment paper or a silpat liner.
Whisk together the flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt.
Cut in the butter with a fork or pastry cutter until it resembles coarse crumbs and some pieces of butter remain the size of small peas.
Cut in the Boursin® Maple Bourbon Cheese with a fork or pastry cutter.
Make a well in the center of the dough and pour in the buttermilk and vanilla. Mix just until the dough is combined, being careful not to over-mix. It will look crumbly.
Turn the dough out onto a lightly floured surface and pat it into a rectangle. Fold the rectangle into thirds, folding first the bottom half 1/3 over the middle and then folding the top 1/3 up over the bottom 1/3. Give the dough a 1/4 turn and flatten it. Repeat this process twice.
Put the dough onto a lightly floured surface and roll it out to 1/2-inch thickness. Use a 2 1/2-inch biscuit cutter to stamp out biscuits.
Gather the dough scraps, re-roll them into 1/2-inch thick rectangle, and stamp the dough into biscuits.
Place the biscuits onto the prepared baking tray (touching if you want them to rise highest), and brush the tops with a little buttermilk.
Bake until the biscuits are golden, about 15 minutes.
These are best served warm.